Treaty of Córdoba (1821) – History, Causes & Consequences

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Treaty of Córdoba (Mexican, 1821)

Treaty of Córdoba: First legal documents in which the Independence of Mexico was recognized.

What was the Córdoba Treaty?

The Treaty of Córdoba were the first legal documents, signed on August 24, 1821, in which the Independence of Mexico from the regime of the Spanish Crown was recognized.

This series of documents were signed by General Agustín de Iturbide, commander of the army of the three guarantees, and by Juan O’Donojú, superior commander of New Spain.

The process took place on August 24, 1821 in the city ​​of Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico.

The Córdoba Treaties are made up of a series of articles that are part of an extension of the Iguala Plan. They recognize the independence of that country and detail the important points of the new nation’s policy.

Image of the Treaties of Córdoba

Treaty of Córdoba, Spanish printed version of those signed on August 24, 1821.

Important Points of the Treaty of Córdoba

In total, the Córdoba Treaty consists of 17 articles, of which the most important points are detailed below:

  • Recognition of Mexico as an independent and sovereign State that would bear the name of the Mexican Empire.
  • Establishment of a government of constitutional monarchical origin, that is, with a head of the executive power and an assembly or parliament that governs the legislative power.
  • The creation of a provisional government to organize the executive power and fulfill the role of the emperor, until defining who would occupy the position. Juan O’Donojú was part of this provisional government board.
  • Beginning of an electoral process to elect a president of the governing board.
  • Establishment that the laws of the Plan of Iguala would be respected as is.

Causes and Consequences of the Treaty of Córdoba

Causes of the Treaty of Córdoba

The main causes that led to the signing of the Treaties of Córdoba are the following:

  • Napoleon Bonaparte‘s invasion of Spain, which weakened the Spanish government and opened the possibility of independence.
  • The long process of Independence of Mexico that led to signing these documents and finalizing his emancipation from the Spanish Crown.
  • Discontent on the part of Mexican citizens due to the political maneuvers of the Spanish Crown in their territory.
  • The affirmation of what was agreed in the Plan of Iguala previously signed.

Consequences of the Treaty of Córdoba

The main consequences generated by the Treaties of Córdoba are the following:

  • Although the recognition of Mexico as an independent country in these documents was rejected by Spain, Agustín de Iturbide entered Mexico City, commanded by the Trigarante army, without any resistance from the royalist army.
  • The creation of various political parties, in support of General Iturbide and the liberal and federalist ideology, which generated political instability in Mexico for several years.
  • Establishment of religious bases and equality of all social classes in Mexico.
  • Proclamation and drafting of the Act of Independence of Mexico, on September 28, 1821.
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