Population census is the counting of statistical data on an entire specific population of a group of people. In this way, its characteristics can be precisely known.
That is, census is the collection of information regarding a group of people. For example, all citizens of a nation.
These types of studies are usually used by governments to better understand how the country’s population is made up and what their needs are. Thus, it can be identified, for example, which region has a higher percentage of homes without electricity.
The data that are usually collected in a census are: age, sex, level of education, access to basic services, monthly income, characteristics of the inhabited dwelling, among others. That is, both qualitative and quantitative variables can be considered.
This is the counting of the number of people residing in a particular country. It is done on a periodic basis e.g. in Nigeria it is done every ten years. The 1991 census in Nigeria revealed that the size of her population was 88.5 million.
Unlike surveys, censuses are not carried out on a sample, but on the entire target population.
In other words, a national census in a country of 30 million inhabitants would require interviewing all these citizens. However, for a survey, only a representative sample of, for example, 1,500 people would have to be taken.
This representative group must show the same characteristics as the universe. That is, if the average age of the population is 30 years, the sample must also meet that condition.
In any case, it can be concluded that a census is a type of survey where the entire target group is interviewed. This implies a greater logistical deployment that demands, in turn, more resources.
In this sense, it should be reiterated that, although censuses are more accurate, they are carried out less frequently than surveys because they are more expensive.