Patria Vieja (Old Homeland) History, Causes & Effects
Patria Vieja: Political and military conflicts that broke out in Chile from 1810 to 1814.
What was the Patria Vieja?
With Patria Vieja, it refers to the stage of political and military conflicts that broke out in Chile from the First National Government Junta, in 1810, until the Battle of Rancagua in 1814, which gave rise to the Spanish Reconquest.
After the capture of the King of Spain Fernando VII by Napoleon Bonaparte, the Chilean revolutionary patriots formed the First National Government Board, with which the first autonomous government of Chile was consolidated.
This government displaced Spanish officials and imposed its own governmental structure even though it still maintained loyalty to King Ferdinand VII.
Given that the Independence of Chile had not yet taken place in its entirety, in September 1811, José Miguel Carrera, revolutionary leader, carried out a coup in order to form a Congress and carry out the total emancipation of the Spanish monarchy.
In this way, the political instances became increasingly radical and the viceroy of Peru, José Fernando de Abascal, entered the matter to avoid the imminent independence of his colony.
This sent royalist troops to fight against the revolutionary patriots and thus began a period of political and armed conflict between the pro-independence and royalist troops, called the Old Homeland.
The series of conflicts came to an end only in October 1814, when the royalist troops under the command of Mariano Osorio defeated the independentistas, a fact that would later start the stage of the Spanish Reconquest.
Causes and Consequences of the Patria Vieja (Old Homeland)
Causes of the Patria Vieja
Among the main triggers of the Old Homeland we can highlight:
- The revolutionary and independence ideals throughout the entire American continent that drove the independence processes of the colonies.
- The political ideas of the French Revolution, which had an echo throughout the world and changed the thinking of the inhabitants of the American colonies.
- The capture of the King of Spain, Fernando VII by Napoleon Bonaparte, a fact that caused a period of political instability and allowed the Chilean patriots to take advantage of the opportunity to begin to emancipate themselves.
- The trade policies applied to Chile by the metropolis, which brought great discontent to the inhabitants.
- The breach of the treaty of Lircay, in which the patriots recognized their loyalty to King Fernando VII and the Spanish Crown recognized, in turn, the authority of the Chilean rulers. Both parties broke the pact and continued with the battles.
Consequences of the Patria Vieja (Old Homeland)
The main achievements and events from the Old Homeland are the following:
- Establishment of the old Spanish regime in Chile, which began the period of the Spanish Reconquest.
- Dissolution of the institutions created during the Old Homeland.
- The metropolis once again imposed itself on Chile‘s trade policies and its economic benefits.
- The independence troops were totally disorganized; then it would take 4 years to rearm and take control over their territory to free themselves from Spanish rule.
Battles and Campaigns of the Patria Vieja; Old Homeland
The campaigns developed during this historical stage were the following:
|Battle of Yerbas Buenas||April 16, 1813||Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Battle of San Carlos||May 15, 1813||Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Combat of Maipón||August 3, 1813||Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Chillán site||August 10, 1813||Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Battle of the Oak||October 17, 1813||Patriots vs. Spanish monarchy|
|Taking of Talca||March 4, 1814||Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Fight of Chilo||March 19, 1814||Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Quince Combat||March 20, 1814||Chilean and Argentine Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Striped Court Disaster||March 19, 1814||Chilean and Argentine Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Battle of Quechereguas||April 8, 1814||Chilean Patriots vs. Mapuches|
|Combat of the three Acequias||August 28, 1814||Race vs. O’Higgins|
|Rancagua Disaster (end of Patria Vieja||August 26, 1814||Patriots vs. Realistic|
Key Personnel of the Patria Vieja (Old Homeland)
The characters that had the most prominence during the Old Homeland are:
- Mateo de Toro Zambrano y Ureta (1727-1811): Chilean military and politician, president of the First National Board of Government of 1810.
- Mariano Osorio (1777-1819): Soldier and Spanish governor, commander of the royalist forces during the process of the Patria Vieja and Spanish Reconquest.
- José Miguel de la Carrera y Verdugo (1785-1821): Politician, military and leader during the emancipation process of Chile.
- Bernardo O’Higgins Riquelme (1778-1842): Chilean military and politician whose participation was fundamental during the Chilean emancipation process. He is considered one of the fathers of the country of that country.
- José Fernando de Abascal (1743-1821): Soldier of the nobility, Spanish politician and viceroy of Peru, who sent troops to confront the independence army in its first attempt at emancipation, during the Patria Vieja.