Generation of ’80 – Argentina History
The generation of ’80 is known as the Argentine elite that ruled the country during the years 1880 and 1916.
The Generation of ’80 is known as the Argentine elite that ruled the country during the years 1880 and 1916. This was characterized by having a strong influence of French and English culture.
The representatives of this generation came from families of the high social and intellectual class. The National Autonomist Party (PAN), whose main leaders were Julio Argentino Roca and Roque Sáenz Peña, was the one that mainly governed during this period.
Representatives of the Generation of ’80
The party that stood out for ruling hegemonically in this generation was the National Autonomist Party (Spanish: Partido Autonomista Nacional; PAN). It is believed that his victory was the effect of accordist policies, electoral fraud or weight of the notables, since at that time only those with university studies could vote.
The presidents of the generation of ’80 were:
|President||Years of Government|
|Julio Argentino Roca||1880 – 1886|
|Miguel Juarez Celman||1886 – 1890|
|Carlos Pellegrini||1890 – 1892|
|Luis Saenz Pena||1892 – 1895|
|Jose Evaristo Uriburu||1895 – 1898|
|Julio Argentino Roca||1898 – 1904|
|Manuel Quintana||1904 – 1906|
|Figueroa Alcorta||1906 – 1910|
|Roque Sáenz Peña||1910 – 1914|
|Victorino de La Plaza||1914 – 1916|
Goals of the ’80s Generation
The generation of 80 had as its objective 3 main political events:
- The federalization of Buenos Aires.>
- The Campaign to the Desert.
- The consolidation of the National State.
To achieve these ends, the electoral power and the political base implemented the strategy of balancing the forces of the interior against the advance of Buenos Aires.
Both Roca and his successors wanted to legitimize power and achieve pacification by imposing the ruling party in the country; as the State was the one who placed the charges, a kind of political clientele was formed.
Features of the ’80s Generation
Among the characteristics of the generation of ’80 we can highlight the following:
- It based its economy on the agro-export model, which included the manufacture of raw materials for export to Europe.
- His power was based on the possession of land.
- It encouraged immigration, since it claimed to have cheap labor.
- He carried out the Desert Campaign, with which the State won large portions of land and slaves.
- It pursued the model promoted by different European nations, including France and England.
- During his period, the Sáenz Peña law was enacted, which allowed secret, universal and compulsory voting in the Argentine Republic.